BANGKA BELITUNG ECO PARK
A NEW LANDSCAPE IN EX-MINING DEVELOPMENT
Rustam Hakim Manan
Department of Landscape Architecture
Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Technology – Universitas Trisakti
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Department of Landscape Architecture
Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Technology – Universitas Trisakti
Eco development gave top priority to considerations of sustainability. An approachment need to be applied in environmentally prospective spatial planning, by integrating sub sistem of planning aspects which emphasizes on ecosystem and prediction on its success in order to integrate objectives in economy, social-cultural and environmental aspects. Problem raises at post-mining area are environmental change, micro climate change due to change of wind velocity, disturbing biological habitate such as flora and fauna and degradation of soil productivity. Ex-mining sites in Indonesia need a primary attention due to the environmental damages they caused, by means of reclamation as an effort to restore and increase the quality of its natural resources. Primary consideration in its developing concept is the improving of regional quality with concistency in keeping local potention and characteristic in functional and aesthetic considerations; and give a positive impact for society in ecology, economy, social and cultural. Basic principals used in ex mining management with ecosystem based are; holistic, integrated and sustainability. Pantai Tanjung Tinggi in Bangka Belitung is a sample case of post-mining site planning through strategic approachment for a developmen of beach recreational site, Eco-park; a New Landscape in ex-mining Development based on sustainability and local wisdom. Landscape planning of Pantai Tanjung Tinggi as a developing idea fully responsible to realize the success of exploitation and development of ex-mining sites by re-arranging the environment, creating a comfort and friendly atmosphere for human, flora and fauna in a balance ecology. Those effort of regenerating nature as a harmonic and sustainable habitat done by following the concept of: Re-greening and reclamation of ex-mining sites; Conservation-reservation; conservation or improvement of land’s quality and stability as well as its water system, conservation and development of microorganism, tropical forest, research and education, natural conservation, local wisdom, tourism and recreation, conservation and captivation.
Keywords; eco-development, problem of post-mining site, sustainability and local wisdom, eco-park
Eco development gave top priority to considerations in sustainable development. An approachment need to be applied in environmentally prospective on spatial planning, by integrating sub sistem of planning aspects which emphasizes on ecosystem and prediction on its success in order to integrate objectives in economy, social-cultural and environmental. Ex-mining sites in Indonesia need a primary attention due to the environmental damages they caused, by means of reclamation as an effort to restore and increase the quality of its natural resources. Primary consideration in its developing concept is the improving of regional quality with concistency in keeping local potention and characteristic in functional and aesthetic considerations; and give a positive impact for society in ecology, economy, social and cultural. Landscape planning as a developing idea fully responsible to realize the success of exploitation and development of ex-mining sites. Pantai Tanjung Tinggi in Bangka Belitung were choosen as a sample case of post-mining site planning through strategic approachment for a development of beach recreational site, Eco-park; a New Landscape in ex-mining Development based on sustainable local wisdom.
This planning is initiated from the passion to restore the beauty of Bangka–Belitung. Expense of nature with more than 140 island strung like beads of diamonds that need to be polished to regain its sparkle, its true identity. Part of “bumi pertiwi” surrounded by more than 50 exquisite beaches that must become one of the most beautiful place for the world to enjoyed through its warm and friendly tropical nature. Visit Babel-Archipelago 2010 is the appropriate moment to realize these goals.
Problem raises at post-mining area are environmental change, micro climate change due to change of wind velocity, disturbing biological habitate such as flora and fauna and degradation of soil productivity.
Ex-mining sites in Indonesia need a primary attention due to the environmental damages they caused, by means of reclamation as an effort to restore and increase the quality of its natural resources.
Approaching methods that need to be applied in landscape planning and design are as follows :
- Assessing ; assessment on environmental quality relating to carrying capacity of the area.
- Planning ; regional planning with environmental base emphasize on ecological aspect.
- Designing ; regional planning is sub sytem of planning in wider scale.
The development of eco park system of Pantai Tanjung Tinggi in regional, district or limited area or sites will become a positive alternative. This effort will realize the increasing of land preservation and water system conservation in the region and post mining site of Bangka-Belitung; prioritize the balance between development and conservation.
3. Planning Approach
Primary consideration in the developing concept is the improving of regional quality with concistency in keeping local potention and characteristic in functional and aesthetic considerations; and give a positive impact for society in ecology, economy, social and cultural. Basic principals used in post mining site management with ecosystem based are; holistic, integrated and sustainability.
Pantai Tanjung Tinggi in Bangka Belitung is a sample case of post-mining site planning through strategic approachment for a developmen of beach recreational site, Eco-park; a New Landscape in post-mining Development based on sustainability and local wisdom. Landscape planning of Pantai Tanjung Tinggi as a developing idea fully responsible to realize the success of exploitation and development of post mining sites by re-arranging the environment, creating a comfort and friendly atmosphere for human, flora and fauna in a balance ecology.
Those efforts of regenerating nature as a harmonic and sustainable habitat done by following the concept of: Re-greening and reclamation of ex-mining sites; Conservation-reservation; conservation or improvement of land’s quality and stability as well as its water system, conservation and development of microorganism, tropical forest, research and education, natural conservation, local wisdom, tourism and recreation, conservation and captivation.
Both eco master planning and landscape engineering require a wide variety of issues to be integrated in solutions for establishing a future that is sustainable. The value of built environment now extends beyond symplistic accounting of its financial value – an educated public demands not only quality but also social and environmental responsibility.
The possibilities of ecological planning solutions further work is required in producing intelligent interaction between master planning and landscape engineering in macro and micro scale; considering the physical and non physical, and redefining quality and value.
4. Landscape Planning
The purpose of this planning is gathering the best ideas which are embodied in form of masterplan of the particular area, that can be used as guidelines in developing further design.
The objectives is to produce a design that can improve the quality of post mining site environment, developing its natural potential to be a tourism area based on ecological principles, integrating the activities of the community into eco-tourism.
5. Landscape Site Planning
RESEARCH and EDUCATION ZONE
This zone is located on post mining land in which planting trials of various local plants already conducted.
This zone directed as an area that facilitated research and education activities supported by the appropriate infrastructure according to the type of activities, such as: network infrastructure, laboratories, educational buildings and others, which aims to determine the quality of soil, water and air as well as post-mining site’s possible use and development.
This zone equipped with a mine museum facilities; museum that shows the mining process through a variety of audio visual media in a closed room. The museum also equipped with an open museum that allows visitors to perform the mining process directly with the supervising manager of the museum. The entire physical facility in this zone is only allowed to use 15% of the total land area. The rest of the area must be regreened using the local plants. In this zone there is one entrance to the area from the western side of the road, which is an existing provincial road that connects Pangkal Pinang and Sungailiat.
Allotment in this zone emphasized on experimental and pilot zone for the development of utilization and reclamation of post mining sites in Sumatra in general, and at coal post mining site in Bangka-Belitung in particular. This zone can also be used as a research location, a natural laboratory, which is useful to improve soil structure, nutrients and water on post mining sites.
Approach of the implementation of that experiments and land labolatory emphasize on sustainable ecotechnology so that the zone have a positive impact and be useful. Physically, the zone will increase the economy of surrounding population, and can also be used as a good example of post mining site for Bangka-Belitung as well as for other.
These zones are grouped into three areas:
- Laboratory and Research.
- Youth Hostel / accommodation for research workers and researchers (high school, students, experts, etc.).
- Buildings to learn.
All are built as support facilities for the existence of research and education.
Laboratory specially built in separate area, away from other educational facilities, according to standard of laboratory existence.
Overall, with its “Smart House” is expected to be tested for daily routine needs, where demand for electricity, water, cooking, vegetables, milk and others filled with self supply system, using modern technology. As the use of wind power and solar power to generate electricity, the use of environmentally friendly fuel (example: bio diesel), the use of distilled water from these area for dringking water needs, utilization of manure and microorganism on vegetable gardens, and others.
In this zone there’s also a mine museum (indoor or outdoor), where indoor museum is just a museums in general, while the outdoor museum displays the mining process to the results where visitors can see first hand what the mining process looks like in the exact location.
Neo landscape is a solution with two targets; functionally and aesthetically. Design outline should have a local character, ecotechnology and beneficial to the region in particular and other regions in Bangka –belitung in general, such as the use of local rocks and bricks that are made and printed with good combustion techniques that makes it powerful for indoor and outdoor use.
Highway uses local materials such as “tanah jagung”, pieces of granite and concrete for easier maintenance.
Street furniture uses natural resources such as woods, stones and so on, so we can gain a very local impression, in shape, material and color.
The concept of spatial pattern that is formed : and divided into sub-zones as follows:
- Accessibility: uses one door in / out, intended to facilitate the maintenance of a whole area, where the right and left side can be used as a ticketing and venue for the plant-orientation,
- Office managers are united in the zone of educational research.
- The area of the museum is located at boulevard tip with the intention ease the access as well as ease the maintenance.
- Security plays an important role to ensure the existence of this zone, to maintain it under certain conditions (fires, accidents and so on), so a special place / health unit was built.
- Research Laboratory was set apart from other facilities, away from noise, people, and other disturbance.
- Other buildings, to support on peak season.
- Other green zone area used as a experimental plantation area for useful crops such as Nyamplung, Jarak, Palm and others.
Greenery arrangement of this zone need a high focus because of the damage. Pioneer plants need to be planted for land improvement and reforestation. To support recreational function, the type of plats used are those with strong adaptation to the condition of acidity, as well as the use of neutralizing substance to balanced the soil acidity.
Pavement material designed to this zone are composition of several kind of natural stone from surrounding area and Sumatra.
Located in the area that was slighly overgrown with some kind of managed aquatic plants, so for the next step, other ecological approaches is needed as a booster to reach the target of green recreational and environmental improvements.
In this zone the area is divided into several smaller sub-zones;
- sub-zone of active games: water recreation (water skiing, canoo, dragon boat, etc.), field recreation (jogging track, exercise plaza for gymnastics or martial arts, bicycle path.
- sub-zone of indoor games: game rides, theme park or historical park (about people’s of Bangka, native and migrants), 3D theatre, recreational pool (swimming pool, water canon, water boom, and others)
- sub-zone of passive activity: fishing area, lawn, picnic area.
- sub-zone of natural recreation: picnic area, tots lot, fruits garden, tents area.
Green pattern of this zone need more intensive treatment because the kind and quantity of human activities in this zone are more diverse and frequent.
- sub-zone of indoor games
all plants will be planted using potting system, by making a hole filled with a special planting media for water intrusion from the surrounding mines and then overlaying it with a geo-textile or plastic sheets, while for the shrub is planted in the “Flower Bed” in pots.
other thing that need to be considered is the application of good watering system, which in this case we propose the use of “water drip” system for each plant.
- Active recreation sub-zone
Besides the use of potting and watering system with sprinklers, we also need to use safety materials, such as tree grate, a buffer of plants, as well as fencing of crops.
- Passive recreation sub-zone and natural recreation sub-zone.
Green plan for these sub-zones are to use local vegetation that suitable for the condition of sub-zone’s habitats, weather its greenery plant or fruits plant, and use the application of suitable and appropriate maintenance and caring system.
Pavement design with the application of simple patterns and use of local materials such as the use of “tanah jagung” for pavement, the use of brick to create a form that conforms to the desired design, and use of granite broken stone for pavement,
Illumination pattern created by using local materials, such as light poles, park benches and other accessories, with a good selection of material that is weather resistant, such as so okeling wood, acacia wood, and other
ECO RESORT ZONE
Located at the location with more supportive natural conditions, a good soil pH, sandy beaches, and regular tidal pattern. The existing vegetations also growth very well in the surrounding area.
This zone divided into three sub zones; public zone, semi public zone, and privat zone. All three are distinguished only on the facilities and quality offered and has three entrances (gates) and all have access to the sea.
In public zone there are souvenir shops, food stalls, parking plaza, and a vast expanse of sand (public beach area is one third of the zone’s total area). Semi private zone provided with accomodation facilities and supporting facilities such as swimming pool, lawn, marina, snorkling pool, and others. While in the private zone, the facilities provided are more exclusive (5 star quality facilities).
For patterns and the use of road materials and street furniture, each sub zone offer something different based on its theme. The green pattern offered is something good, easy maintenance and sustainable,with plant varieties shown in enclosed table. Hardscape patterns, attempted to use local materials, local bricks, and for the outside use, like the surrounding area, the chosen material is granite.
Green pattern in this area in addition to dividing the region into three classes recreational beach, which makes the green planning depends on placement of buildings and crops to be planted, the coast of the ring road need to be planted with multifunctional plants: plants with multiple branches, lush, wind and dust absorptive, and have the ability to increase the soil nutrients. Along the side of the beach area, the plants choosen were the kind that serve as windbreakers.
Almost any plant can be grown in the area, because nutrients eroded by the miners can easily renewed with the daily. Any use of metal materials must be with careful consideration, because coastal air is very damaging and corrosive. Therefor, it is recommend to use natural stone and wood materials for street furniture, such as “damar laut” atau “merbau” because they not just stong, but also pest and weather resistant, and have a coarse fiber so it looks more study.
Built environment and natural resources are meant for human. Protecting the environment and its constraits and rules is very important for the survival of a society. There is a need for design tools and process that allows public to participate in decision making, to understand the engineering issues involved, and to describe creatively and observe the application of different options. The development of post mining area planning with ecological base requires understanding that an area is effected and effects the ecological system of a wider region that is realized in design of planned and built physical structure on land and planning of natural resources underneath built area horizontally and vertically to be able to realize yhe ideal goal of sustainable planning and design. Support is needed through management and supervision mechanism in its growth, development and utilization.
Implementation of development must be integrated by all stakeholders; goverment-experts-educational institution-public. Sosialization of regional development should be through community supervision, where mechanism of development supervision need to be done vertically and horizontally, so that its a unity, sustainable management, which will create public trust and an effective and efficient result of regional development.
- Aydin, Osdemir. (2007). Urban Sustainability and Open Spaces Networks, Journal of Applied Sciences 7 (23), 3713-3720.
- Aqa, Sayed (Ed). (2008), Consolidated Research Sustainable Urban Development, United Nations Development Programme Sub-Regional Resource Facility – Arab States, Developed by SURF-AS KST.
- Benson, John. F, and Maggie H Roe, 2000, Landscape and Sustaina bility, Spon Press, London.
- Battle Guy and Christopher Mc. Carthy, 2001, Sustainable Eco systems and the Built Envi ronment, Wiley Academy,John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
- Chapman, David, 1996, Creating Neighbourhoods and Places in the Built Environment, E & FN Spon, London.
- Cohen, Nahoum, 1999, Urban Conservation, the MIT Press, Cambridge.
- Foo, A.F, Belinda Yuen, 1999, Sustainable Cities in the 21st Century, Faculty of Architecture, Building & Real Estate, National University of Singapore, Singapore University Press.
- Gilbert, O. L. (1989). The Ecology of Urban Habitat. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Hakim, Rustam. (2006). Komponen perancangan Arsitektur Lansekap ; Prinsip, Unsur dan Aplikasi Desain. Penerbit Bumi Aksara. Jakarta. Indonesia.
- Hakim, Rustam dan Aca Sugandhy. (2006). Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Kebijakan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Berwawasan Lingkungan Untuk Upaya Reformasi Pembangunan Nasional. Penerbit Bumi Aksara. Jakarta. Indonesia.
- Jack Todd, Nancy and John Todd, 1994, From Eco-Cities to Living Machines, Principles of Ecological Design, North Atlantic Book, Berkeley, California.
- Katz, Peter, 1994, The New Urbanism Toward an Architecture Community, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York.
- Li and Wang. (2003). Evaluation, planning and prediction of ecosystem services of urban green space: a case study of Yangzhou City. Journal Acta Ecol. Sin. (9), 1929–1936.
- Robert. R, Cathy A. Gilbert, Susan A. Dolan, 1998. A Guide To Cultural Landscape Reports; Contents, Process and Techniques, U.S. Department of Interior National Park Service, Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships; Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes Program, Washington, DC
- Srinivas, Hari, 1997, Information System in Urban Environmental Management, International Seminar, Groningen.
- Uniaty, Quintarina, 2008, Landscape Sustainability dalam Pengembangan Kawasan Lansekap Prospektif Kota, Jurnal Arsitektur Lansekap (Landscape Changes and Global Warming), Vol.2 No.1, Desember 2008, Jurusan Arsitektur Lansekap, Fakultas Arsitektur Lansekap dan Teknologi Lingkungan, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta.
- Uniaty, Quintarina, 2008, Intensive Greenery System: telaah Teoritik terhadap Penataan Ruang Kawasan Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi-Puncak-Cianjur; Sebuah Pendekatan Penataan Kawasan Yang Berkelanjutan, Workshop Asosiasi Profesi “Telaah Kritis Terhadap Peraturan Presiden No. 54 tahun 2008, tentang Penataan Ruang Kawasan JA BODETABEK-BOPUNJUR, IAP-Dept PU, Hotel Borobudur Jakarta